There are many factors that affect the quality of seed storage, such as the water content of the seeds themselves, the ambient temperature and relative humidity during storage, pollution, insects and fungi. Among them, the two most important external factors are ambient temperature and relative humidity. The effects of these two factors on the seeds are interrelated. Therefore, in the short-term storage of seeds, the following empirical formula can be used to calculate whether the seeds have safe storage conditions.
When the temperature (in terms of Fahrenheit) and the relative humidity are 100, the seed can be considered to have safe storage conditions. If the temperature is 60 °F, the relative humidity should be controlled below 40%. When the temperature is 55 °F, the relative humidity should be controlled at 45%. However, the temperature cannot be lower than the dew point temperature. In general, the dew point of the silo is 35°F (approximately 1.66 °C). For long-term storage of seeds, the situation should be slightly different. For example, during several years of storage, the temperature must be controlled below 50 °F, while the relative humidity must be kept below 50%. Such storage conditions can fully maintain the original vitality of the seed. If the temperature is controlled below 35 °F and the relative humidity is below 40%, most seeds can be safely stored for more than 20 years.
Excessive water content of the seed affects both seed quality and long-term storage. In general, long-term storage of seeds should ensure that the water content is reduced to 4-6% safe moisture. Therefore, the seeds must be dried and dehydrated before storage. When using hot air drying technology, there are different requirements for different seeds and different original water contents in the design of the equipment. In addition, under the conditions of high temperature and high humidity, not only drying is difficult, but too high temperature also affects the germination power of the seed. Therefore, an economical and simple method is to dry the seeds by reducing the relative humidity of the air.
The air chemical dehumidifier is the easiest and most direct physical moisture absorption process, and continuously removes moisture from the air to achieve dehumidification.
A dehumidification chamber (drying chamber) of the dehumidifier is provided with a plurality of trays with holes. The number of trays depends on the size of the dehumidification chamber and the amount of seeds dried. Dry air continuously passes through the dehumidification chamber for dehydration purposes. The soil part of the Nirvana chamber is a dehumidifying dryer, and the dryer continuously supplies the dehumidified dry air to the dehumidifying chamber.
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